CIO: How do you get corporations to embrace the need for change?
Schrage: Frankly, I think it's impossible to get organizations to embrace the need for change. Organizations are a bit like alcoholics in that regard, and there's this wonderful line from Gregory Bateson, is that two things are required for somebody to decide to take the step. The first is they have to acknowledge they're an alcoholic, and the second is that they have to wake up in the gutter. And I think for organizations, they have to acknowledge that they're not willing to change, and the second is that they have to go through some sort of crisis that really prompts that kind of action.
CIO: How do you evaluate what kind of changes an organization needs to make?
Schrage: When an organization brings me in and they talk about change and about innovation, I spend a lot of time listening to what they say, but I'm more interested in the tone than the content. I pay a lot of attention to, what's the level of frustration in people's voices when they complain, when they talk? And then I kind of ignore the content and start paying attention to how people actually behave. I'm a very strong believer that actions speak louder than words. And I think the only way an organization can really take constructive steps to change or improve or innovate is not to examine the words they use but to examine the actions they take and the behaviors they manifest.
CIO: How can you balance the need to innovate and create positive lasting change with the need to manage risks and avoid the wrong kind of changes?