The Act deals extensively with new kinds of surveillance made possible by advances in digital technology and with search of digitally-stored records. Following a number of critical submissions, the legislation was redrafted in 2010.
"The intent of the new legislation is to clarify what police can and cannot do as part of search and surveillance powers," Burgess says. "However, new legislation may always be open to interpretation and final clarification will only be determined when the legislation has been tested in court."
He adds: "Police worked closely with one of the writers of the legislation during the development of training for staff."
Disputed police video surveillance powers came to public attention at the time of the raids in the Ureweras under counter-terrorism legislation in 2007. Such surveillance, though unlawful at the time, was legalised for current and future operations by emergency stop-gap powers until the relevant clauses of the Search and Surveillance Act could be brought into force, on April 18 this year.
Some evidence gathered in the raids, in respect of serious alleged offences, was admitted, while other evidence, against those charged with lesser offences, was disallowed.